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555 Flyback Driver

Flyback Secondary Waveform
Board Layout
Board Layout

Here is a simple 555 timer based flyback transformer driver, with the PCB designed by myself for some HV experiments. Above is the Eagle CAD board layout.

The 555 timer is in astable mode, generating a frequency from about 22kHz to 55kHz, depending on the position of the potentiometer. The variable frequency is to allow the circuit to be tuned to the resonant frequency of the flyback transformer in use.

This is switched through a pair of buffer transistors into a large STW45NM60 MOSFET, rated at 650v 45A.

Input power is 15-30v DC, as the oscillator circuit is fed from an independent LM7812 linear supply.

Provision is also made on the PCB for attaching a 12v fan to cool the MOSFET & linear regulator.

Initial Board
Initial Board

Board initially built, with the heatsink on the linear regulator fitted. I used a panel mount potentiometer in this case as I had no multiturn 47K pots in stock.

PCB Traces
PCB Traces

Bottom of the PCB. The main current carrying traces have been bulked up with copper wire to help carry the potentially high currents on the MOSFET while driving a large transformer.
This board was etched using the no-peel toner transfer method, using parchement paper as the transfer medium.

MOSFET Heatsinked
MOSFET Heatsinked

Main MOSFET now fitted with a surplus heatsink from an old switchmode power supply. A Fan could be fitted to the top of this sink to cope with higher power levels.

Gate Drive Waveform
Gate Drive Waveform

This is the gate drive waveform while a transformer is connected, the primary is causing some ringing on the oscillator. The waveform without an attached load is a much cleaner square wave.

Flyback Secondary Waveform
Flyback Secondary Waveform

I obtained a waveform of the flyback secondary output by capacitively coupling the oscilloscope probe through the insulation of the HT wire. The pulses of HV can be seen with the decaying ringing of the transformer between cycles.

Corona Discharge
Corona Discharge
Arc Discharge
Arc Discharge

Corona & arc discharges at 12v input voltage.

Download the Eagle schematic files here: [download id=”5561″]

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Raspberry Pi GPIO Breakout

Board Built
Board Built

After seeing these on eBay for £8.99 I thought it might be a good deal – interfacing with the RasPi’s GPIO & it has built in power supplies.

As a kit, it was very easy to assemble, the PCB quality is high, and is a fairly good design. It worked first time, the regulators hold the rails at the right voltages.
However there are some issues with this board that bug me.

The documentation for the kit is *AWFUL*. No mention of the regulators on the parts list & which goes where – I had to carefully examine the schematics to find out those details.
The 4x 1N1007 diodes required weren’t even included in the kit! Luckily I had some 1N4148 high speed diodes lying around & even though they’re rated for 200mA continuous rather than the specified part’s 1A rating, the lack of heatsinking on the regulators wouldn’t allow use anywhere near 1A, so this isn’t much of a problem.

Component numbering on the silkscreen isn’t consistent – it jumps from R3 straight to R6! These issues could be slightly confusing for the novice builder, and considering the demographic of the RasPi, could be seen as big issues.

On the far left of the board are the 5v & 3.3v regulators, well placed on the edge of the board in case a heatsink may be required in the future. However the LM317 adjustable regulator is stuck right in the middle of the PCB – no chance of being able to fit a heatsink, & the device itself seems incredibly cheap – the heatsink tab on the back of the TO-220 is the thinnest I have ever seen. Not the usual 2-3mm thick copper of the 5v & 3.3v parts – but barely more than a mm thick, so it’s not going to be able to cope with much power dissipation without overheating quickly.

As the adjustable rail can go between ~2.5v – 10v, at the low end of the range the power dissipation is going to shoot through the roof.

The GPIO connector – this could have been done the other way, at the moment the ribbon cable has to be twisted to get both the Pi & the GPIO board the same way up. Just a slight fail there. See the image below

Plugged In
Plugged In

The power rails are not isolated out of the box – there is no connection between the 5v & 3.3v rails & the Pi’s GPIO, but the GND connections are linked together on the board.

Getting the ribbon cable through the  hole in the ModMyPi case was a bit of a faff – the connector is too big! I had to squeeze the connector through at a 45° angle. The case is also remarkably tight around the connector once it’s fitted to the board – clearly the designers of the case didn’t test the an IDC connector in the case before making them!
Everything does fit though, after a little modification.

All Cased Up
All Cased Up

Here is the unit all built up with the case. The top cover just about fits with the IDC connector on the GPIO header.

More to come once I get some time to do some interfacing!